Turkmenistan is an isolated, authoritarian state in Central Asia. It is one of the world’s top producers of oil and gas, resulting in a relatively strong economy. Its government is known for severe human rights abuses, authoritarian control, and for isolating its citizens from the world beyond its borders. It remains largely closed to outsiders.

Tourism in Turkmenistan: A Cultural and Adventurous Experience

Turkmenistan, a Central Asian country with a rich history and vibrant culture, is quickly becoming a popular tourist destination. With its festive spirit, unique attractions, and warm hospitality, it’s no wonder that more and more travelers are flocking to this hidden gem. As a cultural commentator and travel writer, I am excited to take you on a journey through the enchanting land of Turkmenistan.

The Festive Spirit of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is known for its festive atmosphere, with celebrations and events happening throughout the year. The country’s people are warm and welcoming, making tourists feel right at home. The festive season in Turkmenistan is a time of joy and communal celebration, with traditional music, dance, and delicious food being an integral part of the festivities.

Unique Tourist Attractions

One of the most popular attractions in Turkmenistan is the Darvaza Gas Crater, also known as the “Door to Hell.” This natural wonder is a must-see for any traveler. Other popular destinations include the ancient city of Merv, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the ancient ruins of Nisa. The capital city of Ashgabat is also a sight to behold, with its grandiose architecture and impressive monuments.

Important Places to Visit

In addition to the above-mentioned attractions, there are several other places that tourists must visit in Turkmenistan. These include the Kow Ata Underground Lake, the Yangykala Canyons, and the Turkmenbashi Ruhy Mosque. Each of these places offers a unique experience that will leave visitors in awe.

Activities for Tourists

There are plenty of activities for tourists to indulge in while in Turkmenistan. For those seeking adventure, hiking and camping in the mountains of Kopet Dag or exploring the Karakum Desert are excellent options. Culture enthusiasts can attend traditional music and dance performances or visit local museums and art galleries. Food lovers can sample delicious Turkmen cuisine, which is a fusion of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, and Russian influences.

Infrastructure and Transportation

Turkmenistan has a well-developed infrastructure and transportation system, making it easy for tourists to navigate the country. The capital city of Ashgabat has a modern metro system, and buses are available for intercity travel. Taxis are also readily available, but it’s essential to negotiate the fare before getting in.

Travel Information for Foreign Visitors

Visa Requirements

Foreign visitors to Turkmenistan must obtain a visa before entering the country. The visa application process can be lengthy, so it’s best to apply well in advance. It’s also crucial to have all necessary documents, including a valid passport and invitation letter from a local tour agency or hotel.

Health and Safety

It’s always important to take precautions when traveling to a new country, and Turkmenistan is no exception. It’s recommended to get vaccinated against common illnesses such as hepatitis A and typhoid before visiting. It’s also essential to stay hydrated and avoid tap water. As with any destination, it’s advisable to be aware of your surroundings and take necessary safety precautions.

Local Customs and Etiquette

Turkmenistan has a rich cultural heritage, and it’s essential to respect local customs and etiquette while visiting. It’s customary to greet people with a handshake or nod of the head, and it’s considered impolite to show the soles of your feet or shoes to someone. When visiting mosques or religious sites, it’s essential to dress modestly and remove shoes before entering.

Currency and Payment Methods

The official currency of Turkmenistan is the Turkmenistan Manat (TMT). It’s recommended to exchange currency at official exchange offices or banks, as street vendors may offer unfavorable rates. Credit cards are not widely accepted, so it’s best to carry cash for most transactions.

Festive Activities in Turkmenistan

Traditional Festivals and Celebrations

Turkmenistan has several unique festivals and celebrations that offer tourists a glimpse into the country’s rich cultural heritage. One of the most popular festivals is Nowruz, the Persian New Year, which is celebrated in March. Other festivals include Independence Day, National Flag Day, and Turkmen Carpet Day.

Connecting with Traditions

Participating in traditional activities and experiences is an excellent way to connect with the country’s traditions. Tourists can try their hand at traditional Turkmen games, such as tug-of-war or horseback riding. They can also attend local bazaars and taste traditional dishes like plov (rice pilaf) and shashlik (grilled meat skewers).

Infrastructure and Transit During Peak Season

Turkmenistan experiences a surge in tourists during peak season, making it crucial to plan for efficient transit. The country’s public transportation system is reliable, but it can get crowded during this time. It’s best to avoid rush hour if possible. Taxis are also an option but be prepared to negotiate the fare.

Tips for Efficient Travel

To make the most of your trip to Turkmenistan during peak season, it’s essential to plan ahead. Research your itinerary and book tickets for popular attractions in advance. It’s also advisable to avoid traveling during major holidays, as transportation can be limited.

Accommodation Options

Turkmenistan offers a range of accommodation options to suit every budget. Luxury hotels, guesthouses, and homestays are available in major cities, while budget-friendly options such as hostels and guesthouses can be found in smaller towns. During peak season, it’s best to book accommodation in advance to avoid any inconvenience.

Advantages of Different Accommodations

Luxury hotels offer top-notch amenities and services, while guesthouses and homestays provide a more authentic experience. Budget-friendly options are ideal for travelers on a tight budget. Depending on the location and type of accommodation, tourists can also enjoy convenient access to country events and attractions.

Shopping and Souvenirs

Key Shopping Districts and Markets

Turkmenistan is known for its beautiful handicrafts, including carpets, jewelry, and pottery. The capital city of Ashgabat has several shopping centers and markets where tourists can find these unique souvenirs. The Tolkuchka Bazaar is a must-visit for its vast selection of traditional goods.

Finding Unique Souvenirs

When shopping for souvenirs in Turkmenistan, it’s essential to look for items that represent the country’s culture and traditions. Handwoven carpets, silver jewelry, and traditional musical instruments make for excellent gifts or keepsakes. It’s also advisable to purchase from local artisans or cooperatives to support the local economy.

Technology and Connectivity

Staying Connected

Turkmenistan has a well-developed telecommunications network, with internet access available in most major cities. However, connectivity may be limited in more remote areas. It’s advisable to purchase a local SIM card for data and calls, as international roaming can be expensive.

Useful Apps for Travelers

There are several useful apps that tourists can use to navigate Turkmenistan efficiently. These include navigation apps like Maps.me, language translation apps like Google Translate, and event booking apps like Booking.com. It’s also recommended to download offline maps in case of limited internet access.

Eco-Tourism and Outdoor Adventures

Eco-Friendly Travel Options

Turkmenistan has a diverse landscape, making it an ideal destination for eco-tourism. Tourists can explore the country’s natural beauty through activities like hiking, camping, and birdwatching. It’s essential to practice responsible tourism by following designated trails and disposing of waste properly.

Promoting Environmental Sustainability

As a responsible traveler, it’s essential to support environmental sustainability efforts in Turkmenistan. This includes respecting nature and local communities, avoiding single-use plastics, and supporting eco-friendly businesses.

Local Festivals and Events

In addition to the major festivals and celebrations, Turkmenistan also has several smaller local events that are worth experiencing. These include traditional horse racing festivals, cultural exhibitions, and food fairs. These events offer a more intimate experience and allow tourists to interact with locals.

Practical Advice and Tips

Budgeting for Your Trip

Turkmenistan is relatively affordable compared to other tourist destinations, but it’s essential to budget wisely. Accommodation and transportation costs may increase during peak season, so it’s best to plan accordingly. It’s also advisable to carry cash as credit cards are not widely accepted.

Safety Tips

Turkmenistan is generally a safe country for tourists, but it’s always important to take precautions. It’s advisable to avoid political gatherings and demonstrations and to be aware of your surroundings at all times. It’s also recommended to keep a copy of your passport and other important documents in a safe place.

A Comprehensive Tourist Guide

Practical Information

To make the most of your trip to Turkmenistan, it’s essential to have practical information at your fingertips. This includes the schedule for country events, ticket acquisition, and venue locations. It’s also recommended to visit during the spring or autumn when the weather is mild.

Not-to-be-Missed Events and Activities

Turkmenistan has several must-see events and activities that should be on every tourist’s itinerary. These include traditional festivals, visiting historical sites, and trying local cuisine. It’s also worth exploring the country’s natural wonders, such as the Darvaza Gas Crater and Yangykala Canyons.

Suitable Attire

Turkmenistan has a continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters. It’s essential to pack appropriate clothing depending on the season of your visit. During festive occasions, it’s customary to dress modestly and avoid revealing clothing.

Local Customs and Practices

To show respect for the local culture, it’s crucial to familiarize yourself with local customs and practices. This includes greeting people appropriately, avoiding sensitive topics in conversation, and following dress codes at religious sites.

Language Assistance

While English is not widely spoken in Turkmenistan, many locals can communicate in Russian. It’s advisable to learn some common phrases in Russian or have a translation app handy to facilitate communication with locals.

Emergency Contact Numbers

In case of any emergency during your trip, it’s essential to have vital contact numbers on hand. These include the local police, ambulance, and embassy or consulate for your home country.

In conclusion, Turkmenistan offers a unique and exciting experience for tourists, with its rich culture, warm hospitality, and beautiful landscapes. By following this comprehensive guide, you’ll be well-equipped to make the most of your trip to this enchanting country. So pack your bags and get ready for an adventure of a lifetime in Turkmenistan!

Turkmenistan: A Country of Rich Culture and Unique Statistics

Turkmenistan, officially known as the Republic of Turkmenistan, is a country located in Central Asia. It shares its borders with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Iran. The country has a rich history and culture, with influences from various civilizations such as Persian, Mongol, and Russian. In recent years, Turkmenistan has gained attention for its unique statistics that set it apart from other countries. Let’s take a closer look at some of these interesting statistics.

Population and Demographics

According to the latest estimates by the World Bank, Turkmenistan has a population of approximately 6 million people. The majority of the population (around 85%) resides in urban areas, with the capital city Ashgabat being the most populous city. The country has a relatively young population, with a median age of 27 years.

The demographics of Turkmenistan are also quite diverse. The majority of the population belongs to the Turkmen ethnic group (around 85%), followed by Uzbeks, Russians, and other minority groups. The official language is Turkmen, but Russian is also widely spoken. Islam is the predominant religion in Turkmenistan, with over 89% of the population practicing it.

Economy and GDP

Turkmenistan has a rapidly growing economy, mainly driven by its vast reserves of natural gas. In fact, the country ranks fourth in the world for natural gas reserves. The GDP (PPP) per capita in Turkmenistan is estimated to be around $18,200, making it one of the wealthiest countries in Central Asia.

The country’s economy heavily relies on its energy sector, with natural gas exports accounting for a significant portion of its GDP. However, Turkmenistan has been making efforts to diversify its economy by investing in other sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism.

Educational Attainment

Education is highly valued in Turkmenistan, with the government providing free education to its citizens. According to the World Bank, the country has a literacy rate of 99.6%, one of the highest in the world. Primary and secondary education are compulsory for all children, and the country also has several universities and technical institutes for higher education.

In recent years, Turkmenistan has been investing in its education system to improve its quality and make it more accessible to all citizens. The country has also been promoting STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education to prepare its youth for the rapidly evolving job market.

Healthcare and Life Expectancy

Turkmenistan has made significant progress in its healthcare sector over the years. The country has a universal healthcare system, with free medical services provided to all citizens. As a result, Turkmenistan has a high life expectancy of 71 years.

The government has been investing in modernizing its healthcare infrastructure and improving access to healthcare services in rural areas. The country also has a low infant mortality rate, indicating the effectiveness of its healthcare system.

Tourism and Culture

Turkmenistan is a country with a rich cultural heritage, evident in its architecture, music, and traditional practices. The country also boasts several historical sites, including ancient cities like Merv and Nisa, which have been recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Despite its unique culture and attractions, Turkmenistan is not a popular tourist destination compared to its neighboring countries. However, the government has been making efforts to promote tourism by investing in infrastructure and simplifying the visa process for tourists.


Turkmenistan is a country with a unique blend of culture, history, and statistics. From its diverse demographics to its rapidly growing economy, the country has a lot to offer. As Turkmenistan continues to develop and modernize, it will be interesting to see how its statistics evolve and shape the country’s future.


  • https://data.worldbank.org/country/turkmenistan
  • https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/turkmenistan/
  • https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-is-the-capital-of-turkmenistan.html
  • https://www.britannica.com/place/Turkmenistan
  • What is the official name of Turkmenistan?
    The official name of Turkmenistan is the Republic of Turkmenistan.
  • What is the capital city of Turkmenistan?
    The capital city of Turkmenistan is Ashgabat.
  • What is the population of Turkmenistan?
    As of 2021, the estimated population of Turkmenistan is around 6 million people.
  • What is the official language of Turkmenistan?
    The official language of Turkmenistan is Turkmen.
  • What is the currency used in Turkmenistan?
    The currency used in Turkmenistan is the Turkmenistan manat (TMT).
  • What is the national dish of Turkmenistan?
    The national dish of Turkmenistan is called palaw, which is a rice dish cooked with meat, vegetables, and spices.
  • What are some popular dishes in Turkmenistan?
    Some popular dishes in Turkmenistan include manty (dumplings filled with meat and onions), shashlyk (grilled meat skewers), and borscht (beet soup).
  • What are some traditional music and songs in Turkmenistan?
    Traditional music and songs in Turkmenistan include folk songs and instrumental music played on traditional instruments such as the dutar and gopuz.
  • What are some popular tourist destinations in Turkmenistan?
    Some popular tourist destinations in Turkmenistan include the ancient city of Merv, the Darvaza Gas Crater, and the capital city of Ashgabat with its impressive white marble buildings.
  • Do I need a visa to visit Turkmenistan?
    Yes, most visitors to Turkmenistan will need a visa. However, citizens of some countries are eligible for visa-free travel for up to 90 days.
  • What is the best time to visit Turkmenistan?
    The best time to visit Turkmenistan is during the spring (April-May) or fall (September-October) when the weather is mild and pleasant.
  • What are some cultural customs and traditions in Turkmenistan?
    Some cultural customs and traditions in Turkmenistan include showing respect to elders, being hospitable to guests, and celebrating traditional holidays such as Nowruz (Persian New Year).
  • What is the dress code in Turkmenistan?
    The dress code in Turkmenistan is generally conservative, with both men and women expected to cover their shoulders and knees in public.
  • What are some important historical events in Turkmenistan's history?
    Some important historical events in Turkmenistan's history include the establishment of the Parthian Empire in the 3rd century BC, the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, and the country's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
  • What is the predominant religion in Turkmenistan?
    The predominant religion in Turkmenistan is Islam, with around 89% of the population identifying as Muslim.
  • What are some popular sports in Turkmenistan?
    Some popular sports in Turkmenistan include football (soccer), wrestling, and traditional horse racing games such as akhal-teke.
  • Is it safe to travel to Turkmenistan?
    Yes, Turkmenistan is generally considered a safe country for travelers. However, it is always important to take precautions and be aware of your surroundings.
  • What is the country code for Turkmenistan?
    The country code for Turkmenistan is +993.
  • What is the time zone in Turkmenistan?
    The time zone in Turkmenistan is UTC+5.
  • What are some traditional crafts and arts in Turkmenistan?
    Some traditional crafts and arts in Turkmenistan include carpet weaving, jewelry making, and pottery.
  • What are some popular festivals and events in Turkmenistan?
    Some popular festivals and events in Turkmenistan include the Turkmen Carpet Day festival, the International Akhal-Teke Horse Beauty Contest, and the Day of Revival, Unity, and Magtymguly Poetry.
  • What is the weather like in Turkmenistan?
    Turkmenistan has a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The average temperature ranges from 10°C (50°F) in January to 30°C (86°F) in July.
  • Do I need to tip in Turkmenistan?
    Tipping is not expected in Turkmenistan, but it is appreciated for exceptional service. Some restaurants may include a service charge in the bill.
  • What is the voltage used in Turkmenistan?
    The voltage used in Turkmenistan is 220V, and the standard plug type is European style with two round pins.
  • What are some traditional games played in Turkmenistan?
    Some traditional games played in Turkmenistan include chovgan (a type of horseback polo), galkynysh (a game played with sheep bones), and altybakan (a board game similar to backgammon).
  • What is the emergency number in Turkmenistan?
    The emergency number in Turkmenistan is 03 for police, 02 for fire, and 01 for ambulance.
  • What are some must-try drinks in Turkmenistan?
    Some must-try drinks in Turkmenistan include chal (fermented camel's milk), shalgam (fermented turnip juice), and ayran (a salty yogurt drink).
  • What are some traditional dances in Turkmenistan?
    Some traditional dances in Turkmenistan include the lezgi, the horon, and the kushtdepdi.
  • What is the literacy rate in Turkmenistan?
    The literacy rate in Turkmenistan is estimated to be around 99.6%, with education being compulsory for all children aged 7-16.
  • Is English widely spoken in Turkmenistan?
    English is not widely spoken in Turkmenistan, but it is becoming more common, especially in tourist areas.
  • What are some popular souvenirs to buy in Turkmenistan?
    Some popular souvenirs to buy in Turkmenistan include traditional carpets, jewelry, and handmade crafts.
  • What are some traditional instruments used in Turkmen music?
    Some traditional instruments used in Turkmen music include the dutar (a long-necked lute), the gopuz (a two-stringed instrument), and the daf (a frame drum).
  • What is the main mode of transportation in Turkmenistan?
    The main mode of transportation in Turkmenistan is by road, with buses and taxis being the most common options. Domestic flights are also available between major cities.
  • Do I need to get any vaccinations before traveling to Turkmenistan?
    It is recommended to consult with a doctor before traveling to Turkmenistan and to get up-to-date on routine vaccinations. Some additional vaccinations may be recommended depending on your travel plans.
  • What is the dress code for women in Turkmenistan?
    Women are expected to dress modestly in Turkmenistan, covering their hair and wearing long skirts or pants. However, in tourist areas, more relaxed dress is acceptable.
  • Can I use my credit card in Turkmenistan?
    Credit cards are not widely accepted in Turkmenistan, and it is recommended to carry cash (preferably US dollars) for most transactions.
  • What are some traditional desserts in Turkmenistan?
    Some traditional desserts in Turkmenistan include halva (a sweet made from flour and butter), shakarap (a type of candy), and baklava (a pastry filled with nuts and honey).
  • Is there internet access in Turkmenistan?
    Internet access is limited in Turkmenistan, and many websites and social media platforms are blocked. However, most hotels and cafes in major cities offer Wi-Fi for guests.
  • What is the legal drinking age in Turkmenistan?
    The legal drinking age in Turkmenistan is 21 years old.
  • What are some traditional clothing items worn by men in Turkmenistan?
    Some traditional clothing items worn by men in Turkmenistan include the chapan (a long coat), the telpek (a fur hat), and the tyubeteyka (a skullcap).
  • What is the emergency number for tourists in Turkmenistan?
    The emergency number for tourists in Turkmenistan is +993 12 36 77 77, which is operated by the State Tourism Committee.
  • Are there any cultural etiquette rules I should be aware of in Turkmenistan?
    Some cultural etiquette rules to be aware of in Turkmenistan include removing your shoes before entering a home, using your right hand for eating and shaking hands, and avoiding public displays of affection.
  • What are some common greetings in Turkmenistan?
    Some common greetings in Turkmenistan include saying "Salam" (hello) and "Rahmat" (thank you).
  • What is the traditional wedding ceremony like in Turkmenistan?
    Traditional weddings in Turkmenistan involve multiple days of celebrations, with feasting, dancing, and music. The bride typically wears a red dress and a headdress made of coins and beads.
  • Can I use my phone in Turkmenistan?
    Roaming services may be available for some international phone carriers in Turkmenistan, but it is recommended to purchase a local SIM card for better coverage and rates.
  • What are some common modes of transportation within cities in Turkmenistan?
    Some common modes of transportation within cities in Turkmenistan include buses, taxis, and private cars.
  • Is there a dress code for visiting mosques in Turkmenistan?
    It is recommended to dress modestly when visiting mosques in Turkmenistan, covering your head, shoulders, and legs. Women may also be asked to cover their hair with a scarf.

A Closer Look at Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan Flag


Turkmenistan Formation Date

Turkmenistan declared its independence on October 27, 1991. The current borders of Turkmenistan were officially established in 1924 when the country, then called the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union. The origins of Turkmenistan can be traced back to the reign of the Persian Empire in the region which began in the 6th century BC. The first major Turkic state in the region was the Turkmen Empire, founded in 1867.

Turkmenistan Capital Name


Turkmenistan Neighbours

  1. Afghanistan Afghanistan
  2. Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
  3. Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
  4. Uzbekistan Uzbekistan
  5. Iran Iran

Exploring Turkmenistan

Discover the Hidden Gems of Turkmenistan: A Cultural and Geographical Journey

Located in Central Asia, Turkmenistan is a country with a rich history, diverse culture, and breathtaking landscapes. Known for its ancient civilizations, modern developments, and unique traditions, this country has much to offer to curious travelers. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of Turkmenistan, exploring its geography, history, government, economy, culture, and more. So buckle up and get ready for an unforgettable journey.

Key Takeaways:

  • Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia.
  • The name "Turkmenistan" comes from the Turkic word "Turkmen" meaning "living Turk".
  • The country is known for its natural resources, including natural gas and oil.
  • Turkmenistan has a rich history dating back to ancient civilizations.
  • The government is a presidential republic with a strong emphasis on authoritarianism.
  • The economy is heavily reliant on natural gas exports.
  • Turkmenistan has a diverse population with various ethnicities and languages.
  • The country has a unique culture with vibrant art, music, festivals, and traditions.
  • Turkmenistan's official language is Turkmen and the dominant religion is Islam.
  • The education and healthcare systems are still developing in the country.
  • Sports such as wrestling and horse racing are popular in Turkmenistan.
  • Tourism is growing in the country with its beautiful landscapes and historical sites.


Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Iran. It covers an area of 488,100 square kilometers and is the world's 52nd largest country. The country is mostly covered by the Karakum Desert, which makes up about 80% of its land area. However, Turkmenistan also has mountains in the south and east, including the Kopet Dag range. The country is rich in natural resources, with the world's fourth-largest reserves of natural gas and significant deposits of oil. Other resources include sulfur, salt, coal, and gypsum. The Caspian Sea borders Turkmenistan to the west, providing access to important trade routes. Turkmenistan has a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The average temperature in the summer months can reach up to 45°C (113°F), while in winter it can drop to -20°C (-4°F). The country experiences very little rainfall, making it one of the driest countries in the world.

Origin and History:

The history of Turkmenistan dates back to ancient civilizations such as the Persian Empire and Alexander the Great's conquests. In the Middle Ages, Turkmenistan was part of the Silk Road trade route and was ruled by various empires, including the Mongols and Timurids. In the 19th century, Turkmenistan became part of the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union. It gained independence in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since then, Turkmenistan has been under authoritarian rule with President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow currently in power.

Government and Politics:

Turkmenistan is a presidential republic with a strong emphasis on authoritarianism. The president holds executive power and is both head of state and head of government. The country has a one-party system, with the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan being the only legal political party. Turkmenistan is divided into five administrative divisions, known as velayats. Each velayat is further divided into districts and cities. The country has a strict foreign policy and maintains close relationships with neighboring countries, particularly Russia and China.

Commerce and Economy:

Turkmenistan's economy is heavily reliant on natural gas exports, which account for over 90% of its export earnings. Other industries include oil, agriculture, and textiles. The country has a closed economy, with limited foreign investment and trade. The official currency of Turkmenistan is the Turkmenistan Manat (TMT). The exchange rate is fixed by the government, making it difficult for foreign companies to do business in the country. However, efforts are being made to diversify the economy and attract more foreign investment.


Turkmenistan has a population of approximately 6 million people. The majority of the population is Turkmen (85%), followed by Uzbeks, Russians, and other ethnic groups. The official language is Turkmen, but Russian is also widely spoken. Islam is the dominant religion in Turkmenistan, with about 89% of the population practicing Sunni Islam. The population is relatively young, with a median age of 28 years. However, there is a significant gender imbalance, with more males than females due to high mortality rates among men.


Turkmenistan has a unique culture influenced by its history and diverse population. The country is known for its beautiful traditional carpets, which are an important part of Turkmen culture. Music and dance are also integral to Turkmen culture, with traditional instruments such as dutar (stringed instrument) and gopuz (lute) being commonly used. Festivals and traditions are an essential part of Turkmen culture, with celebrations for events such as weddings, births, and religious holidays. The most famous festival in Turkmenistan is the Nowruz celebration, which marks the beginning of spring and the New Year.

Languages and Religion:

Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan, spoken by about 72% of the population. Russian is also widely spoken, especially in urban areas. Other regional languages include Uzbek, Kazakh, and Tatar. Islam is the dominant religion in Turkmenistan, with about 89% of the population practicing Sunni Islam. However, there is also a small Christian minority in the country.

Education and Healthcare Systems:

The education system in Turkmenistan is still developing, with a literacy rate of about 99%. The country has a compulsory education system up to the age of 17, and there are several universities and colleges in major cities. The healthcare system in Turkmenistan is also still developing, with limited access to quality healthcare in rural areas. The government has implemented public health initiatives to improve access to healthcare, but there is still room for improvement.

Sports and Recreation:

Wrestling and horse racing are popular sports in Turkmenistan, with traditional forms of these sports being practiced throughout the country. The national sport of Turkmenistan is galkynysh (wrestling on horseback), which is a popular event during celebrations and festivals. Outdoor activities such as hiking and camping are also popular among locals and tourists alike. The country's diverse landscape offers many opportunities for outdoor recreation.


Tourism in Turkmenistan is still developing, but the country has much to offer to adventurous travelers. Some popular tourist attractions include the ancient city of Merv, the Darvaza gas crater, and the capital city of Ashgabat, known for its grandiose architecture. Important places to visit in Turkmenistan include the National Museum of History and Ethnography, the Independence Monument, and the Kipchak Mosque. The country also offers various activities such as camel trekking, desert camping, and traditional carpet making workshops.

Travel Information for Foreign Visitors:

If you're planning a trip to Turkmenistan, there are a few things you should know. First, visitors from most countries require a visa to enter the country. You can obtain a tourist visa from the Turkmen embassy in your home country or upon arrival at Ashgabat International Airport. Health and safety should also be a top priority when traveling to Turkmenistan. It is recommended to get vaccinations for diseases such as hepatitis A and typhoid before your trip. The country has strict laws, and it is essential to follow local customs and etiquette while visiting. The official currency in Turkmenistan is the Turkmenistan Manat (TMT). Credit cards are not widely accepted, so it's best to have cash on hand. Prices in Turkmenistan are relatively low compared to Western countries, with a meal at a local restaurant costing around $5-10 USD.


- "Turkmenistan is the pearl of Central Asia." - Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow - "I am not a dictator." - Saparmurat Niyazov - "Turkmenistan - a country of great opportunities." - Saparmurat Niyazov


Turkmenistan is a fascinating country with a rich history, diverse culture, and beautiful landscapes. While still relatively unknown to many travelers, this hidden gem has much to offer to those willing to explore. From its ancient civilizations to its modern developments, Turkmenistan is a country full of surprises. With ongoing efforts to diversify the economy and improve infrastructure, the future looks bright for this Central Asian nation. So why not add Turkmenistan to your travel bucket list and experience all it has to offer for yourself?

Turkmenistan Highest Point Name

The highest point in Turkmenistan is Mount Ayrybaba, located in the Kopet Dag mountains. It has an elevation of 3,139 meters (10,298 feet) above sea level.

Turkmenistan Capital Longitude


Turkmenistan Capital Latitude


Turkmenistan Official Languages

The official language of Turkmenistan is Turkmen.

Turkmenistan Ethnic Groups

The population of Turkmenistan is largely composed of ethnic Turkmen, who make up around 88.8% of the population. Other ethnic groups living in the country include Uzbeks (5.5%), Russians (2%), and Kazakhs (2.7%). The remaining population is comprised of various ethnic groups, including Tajiks, Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks, Tatars, and Ukrainians. The majority of the population speaks Turkic languages, although Russian is also widely spoken. The majority of Turkmen are Sunni Muslims, followed by about 9% who are Shiite Muslims. Other religious groups in the country include Russian Orthodox Christians, Baha'is, and various other religious groups.

Turkmenistan Religions

The primary religious group in Turkmenistan is Muslim with approximately 93% of the population practicing Islam. The majority of Muslims in Turkmenistan practice the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam. Christianity is also practiced in the country with about 5% of the population belonging to the Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Roman Catholic Church, and various Protestant denominations. The remaining 2% are mostly non-religious. Traditionally, Islamic practice has been more moderate in Turkmenistan than in some other Muslim countries, often characterized by intellectualism of Sufism and adherence to folk superstitions. The practice of religion is restricted with certain laws and regulations, as well as many restrictions regarding places of worship and proselytizing. The government has fairly strict control over faith-based activities.

Turkmenistan Total Area

Turkmenistan has a total area of 488,100 km2 (188,456 sq mi).

Turkmenistan Land Area

Turkmenistan covers an area of 488,100 square kilometers (188,457 square miles). It is slightly less than three times the size of the U.S. state of California.

Turkmenistan Water Area

The total water area of Turkmenistan is 23,000 km2, or 0.9% of its total land area. The Caspian Sea is Turkmenistan's main body of water, which accounts for roughly 80% of the country's water area. The other major water sources in Turkmenistan are the Amu Darya (Oxus) and the Murghab River.

Turkmenistan Total Population

6,037,049 (as of 2020)

Turkmenistan Currency Name

The currency of Turkmenistan is the Turkmenistan Manat.

Turkmenistan Currency Code


Turkmenistan Currency Symbol


Turkmenistan Time Zones

  • Standard Time: UTC+05:00
  • Daylight Saving Time: UTC+05:30

Turkmenistan has two time zones: UTC+5 and UTC+5:30. The first is the standard time zone, and is the same as that of Bangladesh. The second is daylight saving time, which is UTC+5:30, and is the same as India. Daylight Saving Time begins in Turkmenistan at midnight on the last Sunday of March, when clocks are shifted forward one hour to midnight UTC+5:30. At midnight on the last Sunday of October, daylight saving time ends and clocks are moved back one hour to midnight UTC+5.

Turkmenistan Calling Code

The Turkmenistan country calling code is 993. To call a telephone number in Turkmenistan, dial the following: +993 (area code) (local subscriber number). For example, to call a phone number in Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan, dial +993 (12) xxx-xxxx

Turkmenistan Internet TLD


How to Say "Turkmenistan" In Different Languages?

تركمانستان (ar-AE)
Turkmenistan (de-AT)
Turkmenistán (cs-CZ)
Turkménistan (fr-FR)
Turkmenistan (de-DE)
Τουρκμενιστάν (el-GR)
Türkmenisztán (hu-HU)
तुर्कमेनिस्तान (hi-IN)
Turkmenistan (it-IT)
トルクメニスタン (ja-JP)
투르크메니스탄 (ko-KR)
Turkmenistán (es-MX)
Turkmenistan (pl-PL)
Turkmenistan (ro-RO)
Туркмения (ru-RU)
土库曼斯坦 (zh-Hant-TW)
ประเทศเติร์กเมนิสถาน (th-TH)
Türkmenistan (tr-TR)
Туркменістан (uk-UA)
Tuỵcmenistan (vi-VN)

Turkmenistan Popular Holidays

Carpet Week
1 - 7 May
Oraza Bayramy (Eid-ul-Fitr)
30 June - 1 July (dependent on the lunar calendar) (1 - 3 July (dependent on the lunar calendar))
Gurban Bayramy (Eid-ul-Adha)
6 - 10 August (dependent on the lunar calendar)
New Year's Day
1 January
World Cancer Day
4 February
World Radio Day
13 February
Day of Remembrance for the Victims of Political Repression
24 February
World Wildlife Day
3 March
International Women's Day
8 March
World Toshekhana (Cool House) Day
9 March
Gurtly Halk (Earth Day)
21 March
World Water Day
22 March
World Health Day
7 April
World Health Organization (WHO) Day
7 April
World Health Day
7 April
World Planting Day
8 April
Andal Purim
9 April
Approval Day
10 April
National Revival Day
17 April
Mountaineering Day
21 April
Day of Workers of Turkmen Education System
21 April
World Book and Copyright Day
23 April
World Intellectual Property Day
26 April
World Day for Safety and Health at Work
28 April
International Jazz Day
30 April
International Flower's Day
1 May
World Red Crescent and Red Cross Day
8 May
Turkmen Carpet Day
11 May
13 May
International Day of Families
15 May
Game of Goats
17 May
Day of the Bible and the Constitution of Turkmenistan
18 May
Festivals of Berkarar (Well-Being)
19 May
International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers
29 May
Victory Day
30 May
World Environment Day
5 June
World Ocean Day
8 June
World Ophthalmologic Day
8 June
World Day Against Child Labour
12 June
World Arts Day
15 June
Independence Day
18 June
Day of Motherland Defenders
19 June
Flag Day
19 June
World Emigrants Day
20 June
Day of the First President
20 June
Day of Turkmen Oil and Gas Workers
6 August
Military Glory Day
17 August
World Humanitarian Day
19 August
World Photo Day
19 August
Gifts of the Earth (Gift of Water) Day
29 August
International Literacy Day
8 September
International Day of Democracy
15 September
International Day of Peace
21 September
World Tourism Day
27 September
World Heart Day
29 September
Fitness Day
1 October
Teachers' Day
1 October
World Federation Day
2 October
World Sight Day
13 October
International Day for the Eradication of Poverty
17 October
International Day for Poverty Eradication
17 October
World Science Day for Peace and Development
10 November
International Student's Day
17 November
Universal Children's Day
20 November
World Children's Day
20 November
World AIDS Day
1 December
International Day of Persons with Disabilities
3 December
International Day of Persons with Disabilities
3 December
Day of Neutrality of Turkmenistan
12 December
International Criminal Justice Day
17 December
World Migration Day
18 December
International Migrants Day
18 December
Constitution Day
27 December

We aim for precision and fairness. If you notice an inconsistency, contact us here.

Upcoming Holidays in Turkmenistan

National and Public Holidays in Turkmenistan next days/week/month/year

National Children’s Day

Children's Day is an annual holiday celebrated around the world on various days to honor and celebrate children. In the U.S. it is held on the second Sunday in June. It is a day to let children be children, to celebrate the joys of childhood, and to help make the world a better place for children. Activities on Children's Day include family gatherings, plays, concerts, parades, and educational programs. It is a time to remember those who are less fortunate and to recognize the rights of all children.

Eid al-Adha

Eid al-Adha is an Islamic holiday that honors the willingness of Prophet Ibrahim to follow God's command to sacrifice his son. It is celebrated by Muslims around the world and is seen as a time for families and friends to gather to share in the joy of the holiday. Traditionally, Muslims gather for prayer at mosques and community centers during the four-day celebration, and animals are slaughtered and shared among family, friends, and those in need. Gifts are also exchanged and hot meals prepared and served. Other activities may include recreational activities like music, dancing, and games.

Day of Frontiersmen in Turkmenistan

Day of Frontiersmen is a public holiday in Turkmenistan celebrated on August 11th every year. This holiday honors and pays tribute to the nation’s brave frontiersmen, who have defended the country’s borders from external invaders over the centuries. Participants gather to honor these brave heroes and celebrate their legacy. Government officials and military personnel often lay wreaths to honor the frontiersmen. Parades, concerts, and other cultural events are also held throughout the country on this day.

Day of Students and Knowledge in Turkmenistan

Day of Students and Knowledge is a Turkmenistan holiday celebrated annually on April 1st, dedicated to youth achievements in education and encouragement of day-to-day educational pursuits.

Day of the Workers in the Energy Sector in Turkmenistan

As I wake up in the vibrant city of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, I can feel the excitement in the air. Today is a national holiday - Day of the Workers in the Energy Sector. It's a time for the country to honor and celebrate the hardworking individuals who power our daily lives. From colorful parades to cultural performances, this festival is a true showcase of Turkmenistan's rich history and heritage.

Independence Day in Turkmenistan

Today marks the anniversary of one of the most significant days in the history of Turkmenistan - the day we celebrate our nation’s independence. On this day, twenty-seven years ago, independence was declared and Turkmenistan was born. This day is especially important for citizens of Turkmenistan. It is said that our independence has been a source of immense pride and patriotism. For us, it represents the courage and hard work of our founding fathers, and endless sacrifices, both past and present, to ensure our nation’s welfare. We honour their memory with this special day. Independence Day is a public holiday in Turkmenistan.

International Day of Senior Citizens in Turkmenistan

International Day of Senior Citizens is a observance in Turkmenistan

Day of Commemoration and National Mourning in Turkmenistan

Day of Commemoration and National Mourning is a public holiday in Turkmenistan

Day of Naval Forces of Turkmenistan in Turkmenistan

Day of Naval Forces of Turkmenistan is a observance in Turkmenistan

Harvest Festival in Turkmenistan

The Harvest Festival in Turkmenistan, held annually at the end of September, is an opportunity to pay homage to the nation’s checkered agricultural heritage. Grain harvests have been at the core of Turkmenistan’s culture and society for centuries, and the Festival is an expression of this. Communities come together to celebrate the bounty of the land and to recognize the vital role of the country’s hardworking farming families. Harvest Festival is a observance in Turkmenistan.

Upcoming Festivals in Turkmenistan

National and Public Holidays around the world in the next few days


Eid al-Fitr is a Muslim holiday celebrated to mark the end of the holy month of Ramadan, which is a month of fasting and spiritual reflection. It is an occasion of joy for Muslims around the world. It is celebrated by the exchange of gifts, feasting on traditional dishes, and attending prayer services. Muslims often dress in their finest clothing and share special visits with family and friends. Eid al-Fitr marks a time of celebration, joy, and thanksgiving for Muslims who have spent the month of Ramadan fasting and praying.

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